Douglas' proposal attempted to allay these fears with the organization of two territories instead of one, as well as the inclusion of a clause that would, like the condition previously prescribed for Utah and New Mexico, permit settlers of Kansas and Nebraska to vote on the legality of slavery in their own territories — a notion which directly contradicted and effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise. In response the abolitionist, John Brown; who would be immortalized in the Harpers Ferry massacre, and four of his sons abducted five pro-slavery settlers and murdered them within the view of their families. While the Lecompton Constitution was pending before Congress, a third document, the , was written and passed by Free-State delegates. Although it was never repealed, the Act ignored parameters of The Missouri Compromise of 1820 and helped bring the Civil War closer than ever. John Brown led his sons and other followers to plan the murder of settlers who spoke in favor of slavery. Douglas, a New Englander who had transplanted himself to Illinois, had a grand vision of railroads crossing the continent, with their hub being in Chicago, in his adopted home state. Houston from were the only Free-Staters elected.
The provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska Act did not lead to the peaceful settlement of the issue as intended. The Kansas-Nebraska Act failed to end the national conflict over slavery. There shall also be a marshal for the territory appointed, who shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor shall be appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the president, and who shall execute all processes issuing from the said courts when exercising their jurisdiction as circuit and district courts of the United States; he shall perform the duties, be subject to the same regulation and penalties, and be entitled to the same fees, as the marshal of the district court of the United States for the present territory of Utah, and shall, in addition, be paid two hundred dollars annually as a compensation for extra services. Also, he supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which helped pass it as legislation. The College Board ® does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this web site. Because partisans inside and outside Kansas exaggerated the clash of arms for their own political advantage, the territory gained a violent reputation. The Act was proposed by Senator of as a way to appease Southern representatives in Congress, who had resisted earlier proposals to organize the Nebraska Territory because they knew it must be admitted to the Union according to the of 1820, which had explicitly forbidden the practice of slavery in all U.
Bleeding Kansas: Contested Liberty in the Civil War Era. ® does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this web site. Kansapedia — Kansas Historical Society. This resulted in almost half of the votes that were cast in the territorial election of 1854 being cast by those who were actual resident. Its severity made national headlines which suggested to the American people that the sectional disputes were unlikely to reach compromise without bloodshed, and it therefore directly presaged the. For fear that the territories would eventually become States and ultimately create an imbalance in Congress over the slavery issue, the south argued against the Act.
Douglas introduced his bill in early 1854, and it passed the Senate in March. John Brown and the Legend of Fifty-six. The Kansas City Public Library. A group of anti-slavery activists estimated at 1200 individuals entered Kansas in July of 1854 and established the city of Lawrence which was to be the focal point of the anti-slavery movement in Kansas. In November of 1854 thousands of southerners, mostly from the Missouri border just to the east, converged on Kansas, armed with firearms in an attempt to vote on slavery's behalf.
Douglas, who introduced the act, decided to break the territory into two states: Kansas and Nebraska. Efforts like these were directly responsible for the establishment of towns which later became strongholds of and abolitionist sentiment, including , and. She currently works as a contract writer and curriculum developer for online education courses. History of the State of Kansas, A. The last major outbreak of violence was touched off by the in 1858, in which Border Ruffians killed five Free State men. Douglas therefore proposed Kansas as a southern state, inclined to support slavery, to be included in the Kansas-Nebraska Act based on the doctrine of Popular Sovereignty. Provided, that in case two or more persons voted for shall have an equal number of votes, and in case a vacancy shall otherwise occur in either branch of the legislative assembly, the governor shall order a new election; and the persons thus elected to the legislative assembly shall meet at such place and on such day as the governor shall appoint; but thereafter, the time, place, and manner of holding and conducting all elections by the people and the apportioning the representation in the several counties or districts to the council and house of representatives, according to the number of qualified voters, shall be prescribed by law, as well as the day of the commencement of the regular sessions of the legislative assembly; provided, that no session in any one year shall exceed the term of forty days, except the first session, which may continue sixty days.
Congressional debate on the act continued discussion of the question of whether or not slavery would be allowed to expand into newly opened territories. On June 30, 1856, following President Pierce's declaration that the Topeka government was extralegal, Congress rejected ratification of the Topeka Constitution. The 1850 law left to New Mexico and Utah the decision of whether to enter the Union as free or slave states. In retaliation, abolitionist and his followers killed five settlers who advocated slavery. The hostilities raged for another two months until Brown departed the Kansas Territory, and a new territorial governor, , took office and managed to prevail upon both sides for peace. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act the two territories were to decide for themselves, through poplar sovereignty whether to permit slavery or not.
The turmoil in Kansas contributed to the growing tension between the North and the South, which eventually led to the outbreak of the Civil War. The governor shall reside within said territory and shall be commander in chief of the militia thereof. The purpose of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to provide another compromise to encourage the representatives of the southern states in Congress to look favorably on the act. The number of representatives may be increased by the legislative assembly, from time to time, in proportion to the increase of qualified voters; provided, that the whole number shall never exceed thirty-nine. Congress decided that slavery was forbidden past a certain latitude.
The Kansas Nebraska Act replaced the Missouri Compromise. Congress stalled and Kansas was not admitted to the Union until 1861 when the southern States began to secede from the Union. Although his motivation was to build the railroad, the act sparked great controversy. Douglas- He was a great orator and Illinois Congressman who introduced the Kansas Nebraska Act. In August 1856, thousands of pro-slavery men formed into armies and marched into Kansas. Army troops arriving in Topeka from and.
The proposed constitution was forwarded to the U. President and a faction of Southern congressmen supported the bill and influenced its passage. The act added Kansas and Nebraska to the Union, increasing the number of states that were anti-slavery. If any bill shall not be returned by the governor within three days Sundays excepted after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the assembly, by adjournment, prevents its return, in which case it shall not be a law. The Kansas Nebraska Act allowed these states to determine whether they would be slave states or not. In Kansas, the antislavery and proslavery proponents disagreed violently, undermining the effectiveness of the popular sovereignty doctrine. The committee found the elections improperly elected by non-residents.
The supreme court, or the justices thereof, shall appoint its own clerk, and every clerk shall hold his office at the pleasure of the court for which he shall have been appointed. And the members of the council and of the house of representatives shall reside in, and be inhabitants of, the district or county or counties for which they may be elected, respectively. In both territories the settlers were to vote on whether they would allow slavery in the territory. The terms of the Compromise of 1850 contravened the Missouri Compromise, the purpose of which was to maintain a balance between the number of free and slave states admitted to the union. Some legislation is more controversial than others. It led to battles between settlers in Kansas and Nebraska who were pro-slavery and anti-slavery.