Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. His broad scope of research was one of the reasons Erikson was so highly respected among his colleagues. Middle-aged Adult: 35 to 55 or 65 Generativity vs. Early social interaction or environment affect the kind of level of social connection people learn to expect and feel comfortable with. If the procedure is done correctly and successfully, the baby will also have strong trusting sense. Indeed, Erikson 1964 acknowledges his theory is more a descriptive overview of human social and emotional development that does not adequately explain how or why this development occurs.
Seeing Erikson's skill with children, Anna Freud began mentoring him. To be negotiated successfully, the individual must find the balance of each value. Because an infant is utterly dependent, developing trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers. Erikson suggests that two identities are involved: the sexual and the occupational. In adults, varied medical conditions occur that compromise one's health. Erikson extends on Freudian thoughts by focusing on the adaptive and creative characteristic of the ego, and expanding the notion of the stages of personality development to include the entire lifespan. Other circumstances include separated, divorced or widowed.
Parents might take comfort in knowing that adolescents generally select peers who resemble them and their upbringing, according to Eccles. Others may have a sense of despair during this stage, reflecting upon their experiences and failures. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. This was a big factor that differentiates Erik Erikson's theory from the other developmental theories. Too much guilt can make the child slow to interact with others and may inhibit their creativity. The challenge of this stage is to maintain a zest for activity and at the same time understand that not every impulse can be acted on. He was adopted by his Jewish stepfather, and took the name Erik Homberger.
Erik Erikson's Theories and Contributions Erik Erikson's broad scope of interest and research gave credibility to his theories and ideas. He believed that close and committed relationships are vital to people when they enter adulthood. This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships. In response to role confusion or identity crisis an adolescent may begin to experiment with different lifestyles e. By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive. Inactivity and meaninglessness are common fears during this stage.
Erikson's initial efforts to set up shop in the U. Young adult: 18 to 35 Intimacy and Solidarity vs. His training, which included regular psychoanalytic sessions with Ms. The child will develop optimism, trust, confidence, and security if properly cared for and handled. Impact of Social Isolation and Loneliness Social isolation can be a vital factor in loneliness which leads to depression. This possibility, Erikson never denied, and even supported by stating that, while the ideal resolution takes place in its epigenetic order, any later stage might positively contribute to the resolution of a previous stage Erikson, 1950;1993.
By allowing kids to make choices and gain control, parents and caregivers can help children develop a sense of autonomy. In his theory, Erikson stated that human beings have to go through certain stages within their lives if they want to reach their full development and those stages have expanded from the moment they are born to the moment they die. Teachers and parents must tread a fine line, providing supervision without interference. His interest in identity was further developed based on his own experiences in school. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression. Encourage children to make and to act on choices, such as allowing free choice time when the children can select an activity or game.
In 1933, Erikson and his family moved to the United States where he set up Boston's first clinic specializing in child analysis. Erikson is perhaps best known for developing the concept of an Identity Crisis. But if malnutrition takes place due to not eating enough or obesity takes place due to eating too much, these develop into a long-term type of depression. The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness and the danger is that the parents will tend to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much. Guilt — Purpose During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations.
Erikson was also concerned with the effects of the rapid social changes in America. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Erikson Was More of a Theory Expander Than Theory Inventor Observing both the similarities and differences between cultures, environments, and biological factors, allowed him to view human development from a different perspective than many of his famous predecessors. If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals. He was teased at school for being Jewish, and at synagogue for being tall and blond.